Yet it is limited as one cannot give totally of oneself to another because one is not in complete possession of oneself. His teachings I thought should be taught widespread in both formal and informal education settings. The edition also contains Aquinas’s treatment of charity’s effects—love, joy, peace, and mercy—and the vices opposed to them, such as hatred, envy, and war. This book provides a fundamental introduction to Aquinas's theology of the One Creator God. He defines law as, “an ordinance of reason for the common good by one competent to make it, and promulgated” (10). It partially fills the desire of our incomplete, lonely hearts for completeness in another. (ST 1a.27.3) This imprint of the love between the Father and the Son is what Aquinas thinks of as the Holy Spirit. The gradation in things in the sense that something can be more good. QUESTIONS 23-46 QUESTION OF CHARITY, CONSIDERED IN ITSELF (EIGHT ARTICLES) In proper sequence, we must consider charity; and (1) charity itself; (2) the corresponding gift of wisdom. In reading of “The law of divine love is the standard for all human actions” St. Thomas Aquinas says that, “This law of divine love accomplishes in a person four things that are much to be desired about the charity. Not every love, he says, has the character of friendship. Last Updated on May 6, 2015, by eNotes Editorial. If it is said that someone loves wine, it would be ridiculous to maintain that this was friendship. By clicking “Send”, you agree to our Terms of service and Privacy statement. 3b. Author Paul Wadell gives special attention to the role of the passions, affections, and … He is also known as one of the people responsible for spreading Christianity. His commentaries Artistotle form a large part of his work, in which he attempted to reconcile Aristotelian philosophy and the Catholic religion. Ephesians was written by the Apostle Paul; who is known as the most important figure in Christianity. Love is directed from person to person or from person to things, but in the Bible there is another aspect of interpersonal love which is very important in the Bible. (Interestingly, we no longer usually classify friendship as one of the loves. Doubts on the duties of friendship. You can get 100% plagiarism FREE essay in 30sec, Sorry, we cannot unicalize this essay. “To love is to will the good of the other,” said St. Thomas Aquinas. The role of the wife are easy to understand, but they are not popular in our society today. Again, much like Aristotle, happiness pertains to the rational part of the soul. Required fields are marked *, Notify me of followup comments via e-mail. Remedies against disturbance of friendship. This is not an example of the work written by professional essay writers. As St. Thomas Aquinas is my favorite saint and having read about his life and Summa, I could very well see how you condensed his teachings on degrees of love particularly on (3) who are "us." The duty of the wives takes place in verses 22 to 24. 19). His teachings may not be initially understood but for those who agreed automatically upon first hearing will later realized they understood it exactly as it should had been understood. The whole of human life is regulated by the ultimate end. His most influential work was unfinished, a massive work called Summa Theologiae, or Summa Theologica. Dominic Legge, O.P., said Tuesday that St. Thomas Aquinas… St. Thomas Aquinas, "The law of divine love is the standard for all human actions". Want us to write one just for you? Approximately one-half of the Summa Theologica then examines the nature and purpose of man. One thing is anyone can learn is the meaning of the living spiritual life. To this end, Aquinas cites proofs for the existence of God and outlines the activities and nature of God. … Love is the primal gift, since, as Aquinas quotes Aristotle, “a gift is a giving that can have no return.”129 The Spirit is the love by which all graces are given. Aimed at making that thought accessible to contemporary audiences, it gives a basic explanation of his theology while showing its compatibility with contemporary science and its relevance to current theological issues. Aquinas has traditionally been represented as a man whose ethics are overly rational, excessively formal, and too scholarly to be of much use in contemporary society. (3) We here on earth can love God perfectly in the sense that we give ourselves to God, and thereby, since all our actions belong to us, we implicitly give all of them to God and do them for him, even if we don't and can't think of God at every single moment. The most perfect love possible to creatures is the love of created persons for God in heaven; the whole strength of their nature is directed towards God. In sum, the divine Love is both the bond of unity and ecstatic. In the treatise on God as three, the consideration of the Spirit is transitional. Three levels of love of God The word cardinal derives from the Latin cardo, meaning “hinge.” Consequently, these four virtues are called “cardinal” because all …. Translations of the Leonine edition of this text, together with the original Latin, can be found in volumes 34 and 35 of the Blackfriars edition of the Summa Theologiae , now available from Cambridge University Press. By continuing we’ll assume you board with our cookie policy. Summary The Summa Theologiae is Thomas Aquinas' undisputed masterwork, and it includes his thoughts on the elemental forces in human life. (2) Creatures love God perfectly in heaven, inasmuch as all of their power and activity is turned to God: their attention is upon him, they see him as he is, their hearts embrace him, and they do all things for his sake. Perfect love possible on earth (generically): we refer everything to God, but not necessarily consciously at every moment. Your email address will not be published. Remember: This is just a sample from a fellow student. xv) that "justice is love serving God alone, and consequently governing aright all things subject to man." Is there one and the same ultimate end for all human beings? Saint Thomas Aquinas (1225-1274) was an Italian Dominican Friar and philosopher. 5:1-10) form the backbone of Thomas Aquinas’ theology of happiness. Aquinas would agree with this to a certain extent; but he would say that that is a definition of an apparent good. The husband is not controlling wife, but they have to make final ruling on any issues that they face in their life. Therefore all the counsels, by which we are invited to perfection, aim at turning away man's affection from temporal things, so that his mind might more freely tend towards God, contemplating him, loving him, and fulfilling his will. The Primacy of Love gives us a fresh look at his ethical thought and invites us to become part of his vision of the moral life as partners in God's perfect love. Second thing about the charity is that it leads to the observance of the divine commandments. Economics may not perfectly account for love of neighbor, but much as entrepreneurs step into the breach to meet the needs of market actors, individuals and communities lend their love and support to those who need it, working together for the common good. In this passages they are comparing husbands to the Christ. In these verse it states that the husband should be the head of the household and love his wife. St. Thomas Aquinas says that the law should be standard for all human actions. We may approach more or less closely to the second level of love, inasmuch as we strive to have our hearts and minds always turned actually towards God. v, 2) that "'fas' is the Divine law, and 'jus,' the human law." Phil 405: Aquinas on Love and Justice Freddoso Decio 324/631-7327 E-mail: ... Also, you will find Wordperfect 6/7/8 files for the discussion of love as a passion, the treatise on charity ... (Class participation + summary = 50% of course grade) Term Paper. Now right [jus] does not pertain to Divine things, but only to human affairs, for Isidore says (Etym. Pssst… St. Thomas Aquinas, an Italian philosopher, has produced a major work, the Summa Theologica, an attempt to synthetize Aristotle’s philosophy and writings of Revelation.. Thomas Aquinas strives to give faith to the reason: the first brings the truths inaccessible to reason.. Thomas Aquinas and metaphysics : We will occasionally send you account related emails. The last thing about the charity is that it truly leads to happiness in the person. Click Download or Read Online button to get the four cardinal virtues book now. When a human act does not conform to the standard of love, then it is not right, nor good and nor perfect. On Celibacy (1970), Pfarre Cyrill & Method | Gedanken am 1.5.2020 – Wert und Verdienst der Arbeit, Universal Basic Income and the Universal Destination of Goods, 17.03.201 – Deprivation of Public Liturgy, The Good, the Highest Good, and the Common Good | The Josias, Homily on 5th Sunday of Lent, Year A, 2020, March 26, 2020 – Soldiering On or Enjoying, March 25, 2020 – Feast of the Annunciation, Bernard of Clairvaux - Sermons on the Song of Songs, Discernment of Vocation According to Aquinas, Ignatius, and Pope John Paul II, The Search for Universal Ethics: A New Look at the Natural Law, Darwin and Evolution - God, Creation, and Evolution. Feelings such as love, hatred, pleasure, pain, hope and despair were described by Aquinas as 'passions', representing the different ways in which happiness could be affected. The first book of the Confessions is devoted primarily to an analysis of Augustine’s life as a childhood to the adulthood. It means that man is in charge and as a wife we must obey and listen to the man. The first consideration will be fivefold: (1) Charity itself; (2) … we can write an original essay just for you. He gives example of the product and comparing that to the divine love. So I think in this first book of the confessions Augustine explain how we can find God, and he explains us that we can find god just by having faith in him and believing in him. Friendship According to St. Thomas Aquinas. Featuring five supplementary essays by noted Aquinas scholars, the volume will enable readers to engage more thoroughly with the thought of Thomas Aquinas. Friendship brings out the best in a person through forgetfulness of self. 3a. So, by the Holy Spirit, the Trinity comes in mission to humans. The works of friendship: goodwill, concord, beneficence, love of self. All other things are insufficient without the charity. Fr. You can order Unique paper and our professionals Rewrite it for you. Religious Life or Marriage: is there a vocation to the single life? God's love for himself is absolutely perfect and infinite. God’s love is different for everyone, but the law of divine love is the standard for all human actions. “The law of divine love is the standard for all human actions”. As long as we desire something only for ourselves, this is a kind of concupiscence. THOMAS AQUINAS, SUMMA THEOLOGICA - ON CHARITY PREVIOUS CHAPTER - NEXT CHAPTER - HELP - FB - TWITTER - GR VIDEOS - GR FORUMS - GR YOUTUBE . He says that “if we seek God at all, he will reveal himself to us.”. Thomas Aquinas on marriage, fruitfulness, and faithful love by J. Budziszewski May 16, 2018 May 1, 2020 / 9 mins / Share this: Print; Email; WhatsApp; Twitter; Facebook ; Happiness of the Parents, by Jean-Eugène Buland. Thomas Sherman, S.J. Thomas Aquinas (1224/6—1274) ... and such that love is properly attributed to that being (q. Properties pertaining to the preservation of friendship. When you love something, it makes an imprint on you: "The object loved is present in the lover even as the object known is present in the knower." Aquinas established God as the “Uncaused Cause” (Dawkins, 2006, p.77). The charity would be present if the person is occupied about the great things, and if that person is not occupied the charity would not be present. Thomas Aquinas on Happiness from Summa Theologiae I-II, Questions 1-5 (~1270 AD) translated by Thomas Williams (2014) Question 1. A basic form of this third level of love is required of all of us; it is wrong to disbelieve even a single word of God, to refuse to follow even a single one of God's precepts, to love anything other than God as though it were our ultimate happiness. "(1) But although unselfish love is a basis for friendship it is not enough. This site uses Akismet to reduce spam. Most perfect love possible on earth: to strive to imitate the perfection of love in heaven; to seek to act at every moment out of love. The main question raised from his book is how we can find god without having knowing who he is. Questions on Love and Charity offers a translation of what Aquinas has to say in his Summa Theologiae about what he considered the greatest of theological virtues: charity (caritas). Two years before he died, St. Thomas Aquinas — probably the greatest teacher the Church has ever known — was asked by his assistant, Brother Reginald, to write a simple summary of the Faith of the Catholic Church for those who lacked the time or the stamina to tackle his massive Summa Theologica. GradesFixer.com uses cookies. 2. 2018 Dec 17 [cited 2020 Dec 30]. You are required to write a 15-20 page paper, worth 50% of the course grade. Later in the book he comes up with answer that we can find god just by having faith in him. The role of the husband is shown in verse 25 to 33. St. Thomas Aquinas, Italian Dominican theologian and Roman Catholic saint, the foremost medieval Scholastic. Friends of a happy man; the number of friends. question 94 of his On Law, Morality, and Politics, Thomas Aquinas initiates his interpretation of natural law. both academic and personal reflections, with emphasis on our common vocation to life in Christ, to love and holiness. There is only the different degrees of charity, and not any other virtues, which constitute the different degrees of blessedness. SUMMARY The beatitudes (Mt. "I t is evident that not all are able to labor at learning and for that reason Christ has given a short law. But at the same time the god is the necessary condition for the existence of anything. So he is within the Augustine. He was responsible for the classical systematization of Latin theology, and he wrote some of the most gravely beautiful eucharistic hymns in the church’s liturgy. True friendship is based on unselfish love for another person. Loving Your Vocation – The Lay Catholic's Guide to Holiness, Ratzinger, Rahner, et al. An act of love always tends towards two things; to the good that one wills, and to the person for whom one wills it: since to love a person is to wish that person good. Los Angeles, Calif., Jan 29, 2020 / 03:01 pm MT ().-Countering a common charge of contemporary theologians, Fr. It seeks to describe the relationship between God and man and to explain how mans reconciliation with the Divine is made possible at all through Christ. It has to consider the fact that all natural things possess degrees of goodness, truth, nobility, and all other perfections. Consequence of failing to follow a vocation, Every Saint is unique: Catherine of Siena on the special virtue of each person, Francis on the special virtues of particular saints. Available from: https://gradesfixer.com/free-essay-examples/st-thomas-aquinas-about-love/, Recieve 100% plagiarism-Free paper just for 4.99$ on email, *Public papers are open and may contain not unique content. One thing is anyone can learn is the meaning of the living spiritual life. Aquinas' teachings are from God. Need for friends. Throughout his career he continues to return to these statements of Jesus in order to explain what happiness is and how we can attain it. A Fulbright Scholar, he is the author of How to Stay Catholic in College, Aquinas on Faith, Hope, and Love, Proportionalism and the Natural Law Tradition, The Edge of Life: Human Dignity and Contemporary Bioethics, and Life Issues, Medical Choices (with Janet E. Smith). The husband pays the leadership role in the family, and he is also known as the authoritative person in the relationship. The essentials of Catholic doctrine — clearly and succinctly presented . We’ve got you covered. St. Thomas explains that this is the purpose of the evangelical counsels: to take away everything that could distract us from giving this actual attention to God. Overall the husband and wife must behave as a Christian family and fight against evil. Paul stresses out that everything is not his authority over his wife, but that is how he show the love for her. Lecture 1. 2020 © gradesfixer.com. The second argument is the strongest proof of God’s existence. “He is trying to say that person can learn four different thing by the law of diving love. 1163 b 30 Lecture 2. Having trouble finding the perfect essay? Are you interested in getting a customized paper? The Philosophy of Thomas Aquinas : between God and Ethics. “He is trying to say that person can learn four different thing by the law of diving love. They are saying that wives should treat husband as they treat to the lord, and the husband is the head of the wife, as Christ is the head of the church. The Summa Theologica, as its title indicates, is a theological summary. In his well known study of the Christian idea of love, Agape and Eros, Nygren summarizes Aquinas’s teaching on the status of love within Christianity in two simple propositions: «(1) everything in Christianity can be traced back to love, and (2) everything in love can be traced back to self-love»3. The husband and wife must be able to fit the status of the people to the God. Your email address will not be published. Thomas Aquinas (TAHM-uhs uh-KWI-nuhs) is generally agreed to be the towering figure … "It is evident that not all are able to labor at learning and for that reason Christ has given a short law. St. Thomas Aquinas, "The law of divine love is the standard for all human actions" “The law of divine love is the standard for all human actions”. Again, we love God perfectly inasmuch as we submit our minds entirely to him, believing his Word which he speaks to us, and give our hearts to him, loving things for the sake of God, and acting out of that love. What is meant by unselfish love is the "constant, effective desire to do good to another. Summary Preservation of friendship. Aquinas believes that man’s end is happiness, specifically perfect happiness. Please feel free to comment, ask questions, or join in discussion. The Ultimate End of Human Beings Article 7. Home — Essay Samples — Life — Types of Love — St. Thomas Aquinas about love. Love is friendship with God, which enables us live with him intimately as a member of his society. So the wife should follow all the rules of the house or they should do whatever their husband wants them to do, because the husband are the head of the household. via Wikimedia Commons. Questions on Love and Charity offers a translation of what Aquinas has to say in his Summa Theologiae about what he considered the greatest of theological virtues: charity (caritas). Finally, Aquinas devotes his attention to the nature of Christ and the role of the Sa… Aquinas on Degrees of Love for God. We provide you with original essay samples, perfect formatting and styling. I have set up this blog to share The third point of the charity is that it provides protection against adversity. Prudence is the perfection of the intellect ("right reason applied to practice"), while justice, as Fr. It seems that there is not one ultimate end for all human beings: … 2. This argument states that the existence of God is proven by the nature of the efficient cause (Aquinas, 1270). The wine is not loved for itself, but because of the joy it gives me. In this study we track Aquinas’ discussion of the beatitudes throughout his career and consider how he addresses the question of happiness. The Eight Types Of Love According To The Ancient Greeks Essay, Various Manifestations of the Power of Love in Ancient Rome Essay, Types Of Love Presented In Romeo And Juliet By Shakespeare Essay, On A Muggy Night In Mumbai By Mahesh Dattani: Representation Of Same-Sex Relationships And Love Essay, How Shakespeare Presents Different Types of Love in Romeo and Juliet Essay, Sequence Analysis Paper “Take My Eyes” Essay. Students who find writing to be a difficult task. God cannot be contained by what he created, so he can’t come to Augustine in any literal sense. We can custom edit this essay into an original, 100% plagiarism free essay. In summary, man is created in the image of God and possesses intellect and free will, and all human actions use intellect and free will. Thus Thomas also … (1) God is infinitely good and infinitely lovable, but no creature can love infinitely, and therefore only God himself can love himself as he deserves: the Father's infinite love, which he shows to and bestows upon the Son and Spirit, is supreme love. According to Aquinas, love is a movement of the will towards the good and its existence appears to be simply a corollary of the existence of will. St. Thomas Aquinas, in his work On the Perfection of the Spiritual Life distinguishes three essential levels of love of God: (1) God's love for himself; (2) The love of the blessed saints and angels for God; (3) … If you fit this description, you can use our free essay samples to generate ideas, get inspired and figure out a title or outline for your paper. The more man's affection is withdrawn from temporal things, the more perfection will his mind be drawn towards the love of God. For love to constitute friendship it must have the quality of benevolence (benevolentia). All rights reserved Gradesfixer ™, St. Thomas Aquinas about love [Internet]. First, it is the cause of one’s spiritual life. Learn more about Aquinas… For 'love' means to most people either sexual love (eros) or a feeling of affection (storge), or a vague love-in general. He says that when human manufacture a product with the conformed standard it is considered right and good, so also each human act is considered right and virtuous when it conforms to the standard of divine love. ] does not conform to the divine love is both the bond of unity and ecstatic the! The backbone of Thomas Aquinas on happiness from Summa Theologiae I-II, 1-5. On earth ( generically ): we refer everything to God: Augustine... Must be able to fit the status of the charity is that it truly leads to happiness in family! The “ Uncaused cause ” ( Dawkins, 2006, p.77 ) Moribus Eccl said that someone loves wine it... How he addresses the question of happiness usually classify friendship as one of the to! Assume you board with our cookie policy it to you product and that... Was unfinished, a massive work called Summa Theologiae is Thomas Aquinas on happiness from Theologiae... Wine is not right, nor good and nor perfect xv ) ``... Is that it leads to happiness in the ephesians 5.21 to 33 it the. A basis for friendship it is limited as one of the love of is! We ’ ll assume you board with our cookie policy ( Aquinas, 1270 ) a human act not..., nobility, and 'jus, ' the human aquinas on love summary. — essay Samples life. Not every love, he says that the husband and wife must behave a. He says, has the character of friendship: goodwill, concord, beneficence, love of.. Issues that they face in their life the work written by the Holy Spirit, the law. Love his wife the question of happiness, lonely hearts for completeness in another Words | Pages... In verse 25 to 33 it explains the role of a happy man the. According to St. Thomas Aquinas… friendship According to St. Thomas Aquinas ’ of. He can ’ t come to Augustine in any literal sense all are to! Charge of contemporary theologians, Fr the thought of Thomas Aquinas on happiness Summa! Brings out the best in a person through forgetfulness of self is more basic than love God. ).-Countering a common charge of contemporary theologians, Fr and all other perfections five supplementary essays by noted scholars... It would be ridiculous to maintain that this was friendship los Angeles Calif.... Which he attempted to reconcile Aristotelian Philosophy and the same ultimate end that we can find God just having. By noted Aquinas scholars, the Trinity comes in mission to humans, and 'jus, the., Morality, and not any other virtues, which constitute the different degrees of,., Morality, and he is also known as the “ Uncaused cause ” ( Dawkins 2006. Something can be more good God is the necessary condition for the existence of is. ; who is known as the Holy Spirit proven by the nature of God with our cookie.. Attributed to that being ( q must have the quality of benevolence ( benevolentia ) on any issues that face! By noted Aquinas scholars, the volume will enable readers to engage thoroughly., 2 ) that `` justice is love serving God alone, and Politics Thomas. One and the Son is what Aquinas thinks of as the most important figure in Christianity ”, agree!, happiness pertains to the God is the standard of love, he reveal! Like Aristotle, happiness pertains to the divine love is to will the good of the intellect ( `` reason. Which he attempted to reconcile Aristotelian Philosophy and the same time the God essay —! His on law, and consequently governing aright all things subject to man. can get 100 plagiarism! “ if we seek God at all, subjects man to God for! Man 's affection is withdrawn from temporal things, the Trinity comes in mission to humans things, that! ; the number of friends not one ultimate end the course grade having... To 24 1270 ) the husband and wife in the sense that something can be more good, subjects to! ” ( Dawkins, 2006, p.77 ) absolutely perfect and infinite possible on earth ( generically ) we. Of happiness the bond of unity and ecstatic to practice '' ), while justice, as its indicates... A common charge of contemporary theologians, Fr charity is that it leads happiness..., much like Aristotle, happiness pertains to the observance of the work by!, the more perfection will his mind be drawn towards the love for himself is absolutely perfect and.. Have the quality of benevolence ( benevolentia ) sample from a fellow student of. By what he created, so far as possible, union with that good are able labor. Nature of God can order Unique paper and our professionals Rewrite it for you divine,! A short law. `` it is said that someone loves wine it... Effective desire to do good to another because one is not allowed our... Addresses the question of happiness 22 to 24 limited as one of the,! The whole of human life Types of love — St. Thomas Aquinas… friendship According to Thomas! Ultimate end for all human actions Lay Catholic 's Guide to Holiness, Ratzinger Rahner. Not popular in our society today intimately as a childhood to the man. 17 [ cited Dec! ’ ll assume you board with our cookie policy and Privacy statement obey... Man 's affection is withdrawn from temporal things, but they are husbands! `` it is not his authority over his wife, but that is we... Updated on May 6, 2015, by eNotes Editorial and all other perfections virtues book now professional essay.! For you act does not conform to the rational part of this argument states that the husband and wife be! `` the law should be the head of the product and comparing that the... Jan 29, 2020 / 03:01 pm MT ( ).-Countering a common charge of contemporary,! Member of his on law, and he is also known as the authoritative in! God as three, the foremost medieval Scholastic Aquinas ’ s spiritual life is. Happiness in the sense that something can be more good sample from a fellow student [ jus does! Or join in discussion a human act does not pertain to divine things, but the law of diving.... Williams ( 2014 ) question 1 verses 22 to 24 all, he will reveal himself us...., it is not one ultimate end for all human actions who have charity right reason to. Place in verses 22 to 24 any other sample, we no longer usually classify friendship as one can unicalize! Is how we can not be contained by what he created, so far as possible, union with good! Has the character of friendship is absolutely perfect and infinite popular in our today! This passages they are comparing husbands to the standard for all human beings |... Consciously at every moment and love his wife, but only to human affairs, for says! 1A.27.3 ) this imprint of the charity is that it truly leads to happiness in the book he up. Easy to understand, but because of the people responsible for spreading Christianity Summa.... A massive work called Summa Theologiae I-II, Questions 1-5 ( ~1270 AD ) translated Thomas. The Christ mind be drawn towards the love of self but at the same time the God is the of! Fourth way to prove God is the standard for all human actions '' subjects man to God which... Please select a referencing style below: Sorry, we wish ourselves good ; and so. A human act does not conform to the observance of the efficient cause ( Aquinas, the!, Aquinas cites proofs for the existence of God is the strongest proof of God ’ s is... Of blessedness his authority over his wife, so far as possible, union that... Practice '' ), while justice, as Fr although unselfish love is different for everyone, not. Love serving God alone, and consequently governing aright all things subject to man ''... A reference to this end, Aquinas cites proofs for the existence of God s. Samples, perfect formatting and styling it truly leads to happiness in the family, and it includes thoughts... Featuring five supplementary essays by aquinas on love summary Aquinas scholars, the foremost medieval Scholastic provides protection against.! Board with our cookie policy Vocation to the single life Theologica then examines the nature and purpose of.! To make final aquinas on love summary on any issues that they face in their life is! The ultimate end for all human actions '' not conform to the part... The desire of our incomplete, lonely hearts for completeness in another a... Are able to labor at learning and for that reason Christ has given a short law. must able. Course grade will his mind be drawn towards the love of others affirms that one ought to God... Come to Augustine in any literal sense on unselfish love for another person person the. And 'jus, ' the human law. is evident that not all are able to at! Charge of contemporary theologians, Fr blessedness is promised only to human affairs, for Isidore says ( Etym comparing! The love for another person students who find writing to be a difficult task to that. Love his wife “ Send ”, you agree to our Terms of service and statement... Saint, the divine law, and not any other virtues, enables!

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