Bābak’s aims, however, were clearly not shared by the Iranian princes and nobles like Afšīn (except Māzyār), being incompatible with their ambition to regain power and wealth (Zarrīnkūb, 1355, p. 232). Merdās); its attribution to Bābak may be a disguised reference to his and his henchmen’s readiness to kill their enemies (Zarrīnkūb, 1355, p. 237). His father died from wounds suffered in a fight during a journey to the Sabalan district when Babak was in his teens and the responsibility of his two brothers and mother fell on his shoulders. Details of numerous engagements between Bābak’s men and Afšīn’s troops before the fall of Baḏḏ are given by Ṭabarī and Ebn al-Aṯīr (s.a. 220/835-222/837) and recapitulated by Nafīsī (pp. “Bābak-e Ḵorramdīn,” “Ḵorramdīnān.” Ebn al-ʿEbrī (Bar Hebraeus), Taʾrīḵ moḵtaṣar al-dowal, Beirut, 1958, p. 139. This allegation may have its root in the marriage of the two after Jāvīdān’s death (see Sadighi, p. 244). These days, Babak Castle can be reached by several hours of stiff climbing from the village below. This article is available in print.Vol. Babak Khorramdin AES-256 4096-bit (pseudonym) is a digital rights activist in Iran who told us his story. His father died from wounds suffered in a fight during a journey to the Sabalan district when Babak was in his teens and the responsibility of his two brothers and mother fell on his shoulders. 359, 367-68). 5). ʿĪsā either ran for his life or was killed by Bābak (Ṭabarī, III, p. 1072). 1, chap. E. Marin, New Haven, 1951, index. The king’… WHO IS BABAK KHORRAMDIN? Bābak rejected the document without opening it, and after sending the messengers away fled to Armenia with four or five male and female members of his family and one bodyguard. Bābak, together with some members of his family and a few of his warriors, slipped away by mountain tracks, heading for Armenia. All except Bābak and his brother ʿAbd-Allāh and the guard were captured. The fort is named after Babak Khorramdin, an Iranian warlord who managed to resist Arab invaders until his death in 838 CE. 248-49) but according to one account (Sīāsat-nāma, p. 361) he first sent a force against Bābak, who took refuge in a castle. The name has been explained as referring to Khorrama, the wife of Mazdak ( Sīāsat.nāma , p. 319; Mojmal al-Tawarikh , p. 354) or to a village named Khorram near Ardabil (Middle-Persian Artāvīllā ) (surmise of Nasr quoted by Yaqut. Thus contemporary circumstances as well as popular dislike of Arab rule favored Bābak and his followers. Access is challenging and involves an arduous uphill walk that takes one to two hours. An ongoing problem for al-Ma'mun was the uprising headed by Babak Khorramdin. Pellat, sec. Wāqed’s account of what happened next is, in summary, as follows. 2821). Responsible for the suppression of the rebellion of Babak Khorramdin and for his battlefield victory over the Byzantine emperor Theophilos during the Amorium campaign. 406-07; on the role of this woman and the position of women in Bābak’s revolt in general, see Amoretti, pp. Bayhaqī (2nd ed., pp. On this date in 838, Babak Khorramdin was chopped to pieces for his 20-year rebellion against the Abbasid Caliphate. 5). 366-67); in 321/933 and again in 360/970 in the reigns of the Buyid amirs ʿEmād-al-Dawla and ʿAżod-al-Dawla and as late as the mid-6th/12th century (Margoliouth and Amedroz, Eclipse II, p. 299; Samʿānī, s.v. 95a-b, 202b, 70a. Other writers take ḵorram to be the adjective normally meaning “verdant” or “joyous” and interpret it as “permissive” or “libertine.” Ḵorramdīn appears to be a compound analogous to dorostdīn (orthodox) and Behdīn (“Zoroastrian”; see Sadighi, p. 195; Nafīsī, p. 21; Madelung, p. 63), and since joy was one of the forces governing the world in the Mazdakite religion (see Yarshater, pp. Bābak, losing hope, came out to meet him and requested a safe-conduct from the caliph. Babak’s relationship with censorship began before he was born. Bābak incited his followers to hate the Arabs and rise in rebellion against the caliphal regime. A later incident also boded ill for Bābak. The figures given for the strength of Bābak’s army, such as 100,000 men (Abu’l-Maʿālī), 200,000 (Masʿūdī, Tanbīh, p. 323), or innumerable (Tabṣerat al-ʿawāmm, p. 184; Baḡdādī, p. 267) are doubtless highly exaggerated but at least indicate that it was large. 135, 138, 175-76) was informed and received Bābak hospitably. Required fields are marked *, © Copyright 2020 ExecutedToday.com :: All Rights Reserved :: A WordPress joint Theme originally by WarAxe at Negative99, modified by Brian at Logjamming Contact the Headsman. 5, p. 300; see also Sadighi, pp. January 4th, 2008 Headsman. 3-18 and plates 2, 4, 5, 9, 11; Torbatī Ṭabāṭabāʾī, pp. He was arrested after going out at Sahl b. Sonbāṭ’s suggestion to hunt (after being put in irons by Sahl b. Sonbāṭ according to Masʿūdī, Morūj, ed. 56a); ʿAbd-Allāh, a native of Madāʾen (Fehrest, p. 406); Maṭar, a vagabond (men al-ṣaʿālīk; Ṭabarī, III, p. 1232); and ʿĀmer b. Aḥad from the Sawād region who had gone to Ardabīl (Abu’l-Maʿālī, chap. The fort is named after Babak Khorramdin, an Iranian warlord who managed to resist Arab invaders until his death in 838 CE. The fort is named after Babak Khorramdin, an Iranian warlord who managed to resist Arab invaders until his death in 838 CE. The fort, which state media say originated in the Sassanid era (224-651), is named after Babak Khorramdin, a Persian warlord who fought against Arab invaders until his death in 838. 266-69. 5, p. 300). Ṭabarī states that none of the Ḵorramīs dared obey Afšīn’s order to take the caliph’s safe-conduct to Bābak and that when Afšīn’s emissaries reached him, he said in an angry message to his son, “Perhaps I shall survive, perhaps not. The year of this great man’s death is January 17th. 2809) to al-Moʿtaṣem, who in reply ordered him to bring the captives forthwith to Sāmarrā. Two rich men named Jāvīdān b. Šahrak (or Sahrak) and Abū ʿEmrān were then living in the highland around the mountain of Baḏḏ and contending for the leadership of the highland’s Ḵorramī inhabitants. By then, however, fierce fighting with the castle’s defenders had started, and in the end Afšīn’s troops scaled the walls of Baḏḏ and hoisted their flags. I do not know what will happen. A band of mounted Ḵorramī led by a certain Moʿāwīa broke into one sector, intending to surprise Abū Saʿīd Moḥammad with a night attack, but Abū Saʿīd Moḥammad and his soldiers got word and blocked Moʿāwīa’s way; in the ensuing fight some Ḵorramīs were killed, others were captured, and the skulls and the prisoners were sent to Baghdad. Published: November 18, 2010 The city's economy depends greatly in its agricultural production. To reach this wonderful castle, first, you have to move toward Kaleybar. 114-18; see Sadighi, p. 234). Al-Maʾmūn then entrusted the governorship of Jebāl and conduct of operations against the Ḵorramīs to Ṭāher b. Ebrāhīm. The fort is named after Babak Khorramdin, an Iranian warlord who managed to resist Arab invaders until his death in 838 CE. ), or whether it was subsequently invented to argue a link between Abū Moslem’s and Bābak’s revolts or to explain the Ḵorramī veneration for Abū Moslem (cf. Among the court poets who lauded the victory of Afšīn and received rewards from al-Moʿtaṣem were Esḥāq b. Ḵalaf (quoted in Dīnavarī, p. 399) and Abū Tammām Ṭāʾī, whose poem likened Afšīn to Ferēdūn and Bābak to Żaḥḥāk (Masʿūdī, Tanbīh, p. 93). Babak Khorramdin, an Iranian revolutionary, he did not care what would happen to him, he would die for his country. Ṭabarī, The Reign of al-Muʿtaṣim, tr. Pers., 906, fols. After twenty-two years of persecution, Babak Khorramdin was tortured and executed by the betrayal of one of his friends, Afshin, by the ruler. BĀBAK ḴORRAMI. Babak Khorramdin was born in the 8th century in Balal Abad region of Azerbaijan, close to the city of Ardebil. He was born in around 795 near the modern-day Ardabil in the Azerbaijan province of Northern Iran. But he is not an unproblematic character for contemporary Iran, and not so much because of the anti-Islamic character of his revolt. 5, p. 300) alleges that the woman poisoned Jāvīdān, while Ṭabarī (III, p. 1192) and Ebn al-Aṯīr (VI, p. 459) state that Jāvīdān had a son (Ebn Jāvīdān) whom the Muslims had captured and later released; Sadighi (pp. ... a fall of several thousands of meters would lead to certain death. ʿA.-Ḥ. Many modern scholars regard them as “neo-Mazdakites” (e.g., Madelung, p. 64; Amoretti, p. 503; Yarshater, p. 1011; Zarrīnkūb, 1343 Š./1964, p. 544). 93, l60). ʿA Šāljī, 4 vols., Beirut, 1971-72, I, pp. Babak Khorramdin پرگار: بابک خرمدین; Zoroaster پرگار: زرتشت کیست؟ شخصیتی تاریخی یا افسانه‌ای؟ Iran’s Lost Opportunities in the War مستند جام زهر؛ فرصت‌های از دست رفته ایران در جنگ ساخته حسین باستانی ; II, pp. 1177, 1205) and Ebn al-Aṯīr (s.a. 220/835 and 222/837) about Ḵorramī merry-making and wine drinking even in wartime confirm one of the sect’s reputed characteristics (see Amoretti, p. 517), but their tales of Bābak’s promiscuity and abduction of pretty Armenian girls seem inconsistent with another statement of Ṭabarī (III, p. 1227) that the women wept when they saw Bābak captive in Afšīn’s camp. 135-41). Many of Bābak’s men scattered in the mountains and escaped. Bābak’s hand was greatly strengthened by his possession of this inaccessible mountain stronghold, to which the Arabic poet Boḥtorī, amongst others, refers in verses quoted by Yāqūt (I, p. 361). We have no successor to carry on our movement.” The fact that Bābak sent his brother away when he himself took refuge with Sahl b. Sonbāṭ implies Bābak’s hope for the continuation of the movement. 578f. 64-87. 795, according to some other sources 798 — d. 7th January 838) was a Persian freedom fighter and one of the leaders of the Khorram-Dinan (Persian, "Those of the joyous religion"), which was a local freedom movement fighting the Abbasid Caliphate. The best-known figure along these lines is Banu, wife of Babak Khorramdin (d. 838 CE), who led a resistance cell with him until they were betrayed, captured, and executed under the Abbasid Caliphate. Babak's Iranianizing rebellion, from its base in Azerbaijan in northwestern Iran, called for a return of the political glories of the Iranian past; the Khorramdin rebellion of Babak spread to the Western and Central parts of Iran and lasted more than twenty years before it was defeated when Babak was betrayed. 2815) al-Moʿtaṣem gave Otroja, the daughter of a high-ranking Turkish officer named Ašnās, in marriage to Afšīn’s son Ḥasan and laid on a splendid wedding party. When Bābak came back and spoke to Jāvīdān, he impressed Jāvīdān with his shrewdness despite his lack of fluency of speech. Bābak) appear to derive from rumors that Afšīn was already in secret contact with anti-ʿAbbasid leaders such as Bābak and the ruler of Ṭabarestān, Māzyār b. Qāren, and perhaps also with the Byzantine emperor Theophilus. 96-97). The fullest account of Bābak’s career comes from a lost Aḵbār Bābak by Wāqed b. M.-T. Dānešpažūh, FIZ 10, 1341 Š./1962, pp. According to the Fehrest (pp. The only access is by a very narrow track through gorges, up steep slopes, and across patches of dense forest. Babak's Early Life Merdās is the name of Żaḥḥāk’s father in Ferdowsī’s Šāh-nāma, probably meaning “man-eater” (mard-ās; see R. Roth, “Die Sage von Dschemschid,” ZDMG 4, 1850, pp. Afšīn had already sent letters to the district promising a large reward for the capture of Bābak, and Sahl b. Sonbāṭ informed Afšīn of Bābak’s presence. However, it was then renamed in honor of the medieval Persian revolutionary leader Babak Khorramdin[3] who rebelled against the Abbasids. 449-51). 265, 275; Amoretti, p. 509). The name Babak (also Papak) was the name of the founder of the Sassanian dynasty c 200 CE. Also mentioned are various precautions which Afšīn took at this time, such as trench-digging, patrolling, hiring local highlanders as spies, and sending detachments to strategic points. 6-42. J. Šeʿār, Tehran, 1348 Š./1969, pp. Allegations that Afšīn deceived Bābak with conciliatory messages and feigned friendship (Nafīsī, pp. Where is Babak Fort? Bābak’s brother ʿAbd-Allāh was sent to Baghdad, where he was similarly executed and gibbeted by Esḥāq b. Ebrāhīm Moṣʿabī. Babak Khorramdin was a famous rebel leader from the Azerbaijan region of north-western Iran. 168-69) tells how the minister Ḥasan b. Sahl, like several dignitaries, was reluctant to dismount and salute Afšīn but dared not disobey the caliph’s command. Being close to starvation, Bābak sent the guard to a village to get food. Ḡ.-H. Moṣāḥeb, Tehran, 1345 Š./1966, s.v. ), Afšīn refused, but when Afšīn demanded hostages, Bābak offered his son or others of his followers and asked Afšīn to restrain the troops from attacking. Pellat, IV, p. 144, sec. After twenty-two years of persecution, Babak Khorramdin was tortured and executed by the betrayal of one of his friends, Afshin, by the ruler. Al-Maʾmūn at first paid scant attention to Bābak’s revolt, evidently because he was living in distant Khorasan and preoccupied with matters such as the designation of his successor, the actions of Fażl b. Sahl, and the backlash at Baghdad. There are several paths to the castle, though the normal route soars stairs behind the seasonal Babak … Abū Saʿīd Moḥammad set about these tasks. B. ʿA.-R. Homāyūn-Farroḵ, “Dāstān-e tārīḵī-e Bābak wa Afšīn,” Hūḵt, no. 319, 359-89. When the caliph’s safe-conduct arrived, Afšīn commissioned two Ḵorramīs to carry it to Bābak together with a letter from Bābak’s son, who had been taken prisoner. Babak incited his followers to rise in rebellion against the caliphal regime. Another conjecture is that Afšīn sacrificed Bābak because he was afraid of being supplanted as commander of the anti-Ḵorramī expedition by his Taherid rivals (Nafīsī, p. 68). Previously Moḥammad b. Boʿayṯ, the lord of a strong castle named Qaḷʿa-ye Šāhī, had been well-disposed to Bābak and willing to accommodate his men when they came to the neighborhood; but when Bābak sent a company under a captain named ʿEṣma, Moḥammad b. Boʿayṯ first made them drunk, then threw ʿEṣma into chains and enticed the men one by one into the castle and killed most of them, only a few being able to escape. How to reach the Babak Fort? Bābak’s defeat hit the Ḵorramīs hard but did not destroy them. The suspicion probably gained credence because the three movements shared a common hostility to the ʿAbbasids and may have occasionally collaborated. After verifying this, Afšīn sent a large force under Abū Saʿīd Moḥammad b. Yūsof to capture Bābak. 838: Babak Khorramdin. Then Jāvīdān’s widow married Bābak in a simple ceremony in the presence of all (Fehrest, pp. Iranian Azarbaijanis gather at Babak Castle during the first weekend in July for the annual commemoration of Babak Khorramdin. Wherever I am present or am mentioned, I am the king.” The words show that he was a man of far-reaching ambition and enterprise. While Baḷʿamī and others describe Bābak’s following as made up of local farmers and poor people, several writers call them “thieves, heretics, and profligates” (ʿAwfī, pt. Other accounts are less detailed and show variations. In most of the sources the start of Bābak’s revolt is placed in the year 201/816-17 in al-Maʾmūn’s reign, when the Ḵorramīs began to infiltrate neighboring districts and create insecurity in Azerbaijan. Banu, Wife of Babak (d. c. 838 CE) Banu was the wife of the hero and freedom fighter Babak Khorramdin (d. 838 CE) who fought against the occupying forces of the Abbasid Caliphate. When Bābak came under attack from Afšīn’s army, he is said to have written a letter to the Byzantine emperor Theophilus (r. 829-42), begging him to lead an expedition into Azerbaijan; but Theophilus’s march into caliphal territory with a force including fugitive Ḵorramīs did not take place until after the capture and execution of Bābak in 223/838; the authenticity of Bābak’s letter is open to question (Sadighi, p. 257 n. 3). He released the men and returned the women and children to those shown to be their husbands, fathers, or guardians. Babak Khorramdin was one of the main Iranian revolutionary leaders of the Iranian Khorram-Dinān, which was a local freedom movement fighting the Abbasid Caliphate. 405-06; Sīāsat-nāma, p. 319; Mojmal, pp. Thereafter al-Maʾmūn showed more concern and regularly dispatched well-armed forces to Azerbaijan. 239-41). Nat., supp. When he had grown up he went to Tabrīz, where he spent two years in the service of Moḥammad b. Rawwād Azdī before returning at the age of eighteen to his home at Belālābād. Captured at last — he had spurned a guarantee of safety with that timeless insurrectionary sentiment, “Better to live for just a single day as a ruler than to live for forty years as an abject slave” — he had his hands and legs struck off in the presence of the caliph. Babak Khorramdin was born in the 8th century in Balal Abad region of Azerbaijan, close to the city of Ardebil. 517-18, 508). Pellat, sec. According to some sources his head was later sent around for display in other cities and in Khorasan. Pellat, sec. 268.) Baḏḏ fell on 9 Ramażān 222/15 August 837. Idem, Māh-e Naḵšab, Tehran, 1334 Š./1955, pp. Many of the old writers, particularly those of Sunnite persuasion, assert that Ḵorramīs influenced and infiltrated the Qarmaṭī and Esmāʿīlī movements, and some modern scholars take the same view while others are more cautious (Madelung, p. 65; B. Lewis, The Origins of Ismailism, Cambridge, 1940, pp. Ḏ. Ṣafā, “Bābak-e Ḵorramdīnī,” Majalla-ye arteš 8, 1328 Š./1949, no. Dīnavarī’s mention of a Ḵorramī group named Fāṭemīya after Abū Moslem’s daughter and of Bābak’s membership of it is repeated in Taʾrīḵ Baḡdād (X, p. 207; see also Madelung, pp. Ṭabarī (III, p. 1171; cf. His stronghold Baḏḏ was situated in impenetrable mountains with intricate defiles and passes, where, according to Baḷʿamī (see Kāmbaḵš Fard, Barrasīhā-ye tārīḵī 1/4, Dey, 1345 Š./November-December, 1966-67, pp. Babak Khorramdin, Azeri nationalist and local bad-boy, perched his magnificent 9th-century citadel on a rocky precipice in the mountainous far north, high above the town of Kaleybar. After the death of Javidhan, Babak married Javidhan's wife and became the Khorramis' leader, sometime in the year 816–17 during al-Ma'mun's reign. Neẓām-al-Molk Ṭūsī, Sīāsat-nāma, ed. On one occasion al-Moʿtaṣem dispatched Jaʿfar Dīnār known as Ḵayyāṭ (the Tailor), who had been a senior general in al-Maʾmūn’s reign, and Aytāḵ the Turk, a slave-soldier who superintended the caliphal kitchen, with reinforcements and money for Afšīn and also several ass-loads of iron spikes to be strewn around the camp as a precaution against night raids. Bābak’s boldness, shrewdness, and efficiency in the military leadership of the long struggle, and the trust placed in him by his supporters are certainly remarkable (on his personality and ideas, see Sadighi, pp. Entry Filed under: Azerbaijan,Caliphate,Capital Punishment,Death Penalty,Disfavored Minorities,Dismembered,Early Middle Ages,Execution,Famous,God,Gruesome Methods,History,Iran,Martyrs,Persia,Power,Racial and Ethnic Minorities,Revolutionaries,Summary Executions, Tags: 838, abassids, azeri, babak khorramdin, Caliphate, islam, january 4, khurramites, nationalism, zoroastrian, zoroastrianism, Your email address will not be published. Many stories about Bābak’s escape and adventures have come down (see Sadighi, p. 265 n. 3). In the subsequent battle near Hamadān several thousand (60,000 in Ṭabarī and Ebn al-Aṯīr) Ḵorramīs were killed, but a large number escaped to Byzantine territory, whence they came back later to resume their fight (Ṭabarī, III, p. 1165; Ebn al-Aṯīr, VI, p. 441; Sīāsat-nāma, pp. His father died from wounds suffered in a fight during a journey to the Sabalan district when Babak was in his teens and the responsibility of his two brothers and mother fell on his shoulders. . 247-48; Dāʾerat al-maʿāref-e fārsī, s.v. To reach the large building from the castle’s walls one had to climb about 100 m higher up by a narrow path passable only by one man at a time along the ridge, which is surrounded by a forested ravine 400 feet deep (see Kāmbaḵš Fard, “Qaḷʿa-ye Jomhūr ya Dež-e Baḏḏ,” Honar o mardom 50, Āḏar, 1345 Š./November-December, 1966, pp. at the village of Sarāt (Sarāb ?) 321-22; Ebn al-Aṯīr, repr., VI, p. 328; Ebn al-ʿEbrī (Bar Hebraeus), p. 139; Ebn Ḵaldūn, events of 201/817; Faṣīḥ, I, p. 270; see also G. Flügel, p. 539 nn. 417-33, esp. Babak Khorramdin پرگار: بابک خرمدین ... Death becomes a vehicle through which the ‘true faith’, is not only revealed and survives but also triumphs. 61-64, 201-03. There are several paths to the castle, though the normal route soars stairs behind the seasonal Babak … The name has been explained as referring to Ḵorrama, the wife of Mazdak (Sīāsat-nāma, p. 319; Mojmal al-tāwārīḵ, p. 354) or to a village named Ḵorram near Ardabīl (surmise of Naṣr quoted by Yāqūt, Moʿjam II, p. 362), but these attributions are questionable. Banu and Babak Khoramdin are considered as one of the most heroic freedom fighters of Persia who initiated the Khurramite movement. 187-280 (sources pp. Published: November 18, 2010 The city's economy depends greatly in its agricultural production. The poet ʿAṭṭār, however, attributes this gesture to the crucified mystic Ḥosayn b. Manṣūr Ḥallāj (Manṭeq al-ṭayr, ed. 1-9, 11-12. Babak by Nafisi.djvu 3,249 × 4,931, 251 pages; 11.45 MB Babak Khorramdin on Russia USSR mint cover from 20.03.1990 URSS.jpg 626 × 439; 109 KB Babək Xaçmaz.jpg 1,536 × 2,048; 361 KB The woman accepted and let Bābak go. Submitted tags will be reviewed by site administrator before it is posted online.If you enter several tags, separate with commas. WHO IS BABAK KHORRAMDIN? 233ff. A Zoroastrian son of northwest Iran’s Azerbaijan region, Babak rose to head a movement at once political and religious rooted in cultural preservation against the Arab-dominated caliphate. 2398) Bābak is described simply as one of the Fāṭemīya group of the Ḵorramīs. Babak Khorramdin the national hero of Iran who sacrificed his life for his country. Abū Manṣūr Baḡdādī, al-Farq bayn al-feraq, ed. Afšīn used this information to lure Bābak into a full engagement, in which many of Bābak’s comrades were killed. Pellat, sec. He was a neo-Mazdakite. His widow then earned her living as a wet-nurse for other people’s infants, while Bābak worked as a cowherd until he was twelve years old. Jāvīdān therefore asked the woman for permission to take her son away to manage his farms and properties, and offered to send her fifty dirhams a month from Bābak’s salary. They arrived on Thursday, or Wednesday night, 3 Ṣafar 223/4 January 838. 14, 1342 Š./1963, n.s., pts. Madelung, p. 64; Amoretti, pp. The name has been explained as referring to Khorrama, the wife of Mazdak ( Sīāsat.nāma , p. 319; Mojmal al-Tawarikh , p. 354) or to a village named Khorram near Ardabil (Middle-Persian Artāvīllā ) (surmise of Nasr quoted by Yaqut. M. M. ʿAbd-al-Ḥamīd, Beirut, n.d., pp. Babak Khorramdin the national hero of Iran who sacrificed his life for his country. Babak by Nafisi.djvu 3,249 × 4,931, 251 pages; 11.45 MB Babak Khorramdin on Russia USSR mint cover from 20.03.1990 URSS.jpg 626 × 439; 109 KB Babək Xaçmaz.jpg 1,536 × 2,048; 361 KB The numerous revolts in the two or three centuries after the Arab conquest point to widespread discontent among the Iranian elements from whom the leaders, including Bābak, drew their support, and perhaps also to a desire to return to the past. According to Wāqed, however, ʿAbd-Allāh, Bābak’s father, was a cooking-oil vendor who had left his home town Madāʾen for the Azerbaijan frontier zone and settled in the village of Belālābād in the Maymaḏ district. One of us may be caught and the other may survive. Ḥasan b. Sonbāṭ was rewarded by the caliph with a gift of 100,000 dirhams, a jeweled belt, and the crown of a patricius, and his son Moʿāwīa also received 100,000 dirhams. Various figures, said to have been obtained from an executioner or executioners whom Bābak had employed, are given for those whose death he ordered in the course of his long revolt; the figure of 255,000 or more in most of the sources (Ṭabarī, III, p. 1233; Maqdesī, VI, p. 114; Sadighi, p. 271) is obviously an exaggeration, no doubt intended to impute cruelty and bloodthirstiness to Bābak. The caliph appointed ʿAlī b. Hešām, the governor of Jebāl, Qom, Isfahan, and Azerbaijan, with the responsibility to lead the operations against Bābak; allegedly he oppressed the inhabitants, killing men and confiscating properties, and even planned to kill al-Maʾmūn’s emissary ʿOjayf b. C. Huart, “Bābak,” in EI1 I. W. Madelung, “Khurramiyya,” in EI2 V. D. Margoliouth, “Khurramiyya,” in EI1 II. M. Rāvandī, Tārīḵ-etaḥawwolāt-e ejtemāʿī III, Tehran, 1331 Š./1952. Aḥmad Kasrawī’s researches had already pointed to the site near Kalībar (Šahrīārān-e gomnām, 2nd ed., Tehran, 1335 Š./1956, p. 149). According to some authors (e.g., Neẓām-al-Molk, Sīāsat-nāma, pp. Iranian Azarbaijanis gather at Babak Castle during the first weekend in July for the annual commemoration of Babak Khorramdin. 9, pp. Often Bābak used his positional advantage to surprise the enemy and kill large numbers of them. Babak was eventually betrayed, handed over to the Abbasid Caliph, al-Mu’tasim, and tortured to death. Eqbāl, Tehran, 1313 Š./1934, p. 184. Under Bābak’s leadership the Ḵorramīs, who are described as having been before Bābak’s time peaceful farmers, refraining from killing or harming other people (Maqdesī, Badʾ IV, pp. Bābak’s revolt, however, was still in full swing, and the slaughter of so many Ḵorramīs seems to have strengthened his men’s will to fight. Babak Khorramdin پرگار: بابک خرمدین; Zoroaster پرگار: زرتشت کیست؟ شخصیتی تاریخی یا افسانه‌ای؟ Iran’s Lost Opportunities in the War مستند جام زهر؛ فرصت‌های از دست رفته ایران در جنگ ساخته حسین باستانی ... After his father’s death in his early teen, he was given the responsibility of his 2 brothers and mother during a traditional Zartosht ceremony in holy Odlaq (Fire-temple), which used to involve a glass of Azeri wine and wearing a purple ribbon around body.

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